NB: I endeavour to keep these lists up-to-date however the web is a dynamic place. URL's that no longer function are left within this list but do not function as a hyperlink (unless you copy the URL and paste it into your browser). If you resolve any of these links (i.e. find out where that organisation is now) and would care to send me an updated URL, specifying the organisation that the URL is for, it would be most appreciated. If you have an organisation that you would like to see included in any of these VR lists, please send me details of the organisation and an appropriate URL. Address all email to:

VR Organisations 

3001AD LLC

[USA, physical location based entertainment, Omni Sphere]

3D Action Gamers' Archive


Ars Electronica Center

The Ars Electronica Center provides an interdisciplinary platform for "encounters" between the arts, sciences and society. The Center is a model for exploring the impact of new technologies and media for art. The Ars Electronica Research and Residence Program is a forum for artist collaboration and networking with other institutions.

[Austria, interdisciplinary projects, collaborative art]


an interdisciplinary group concerned with the integration of computer technology, communication and design. ART+COM was founded in 1988 as a centre for computer aided design and communication, with the intention to promote co-operation between science, design and education. Since 1988 ART+COM has established itself as a melting pot for new ideas and new technologies, where specialists from the Arts, from Science and from industry come together to combine their ideas and goals. HOME PAGE at Virtual Reality Projects developed over the last 7 Years at Art+Com, Berlin: New Media in Town Planning (Teleinteractive and Televirtual Townplanning) Cyber City Fly, (Virtual Berlin) T_Vision (Virtual Earth) VR Daimler (Virtual Car) Iconoclast Networked Skin

[Germany, interdisciplinary projects, collaborative art]

Atlantis Cyberspace Virtual Reality Entertainment

[entertainment, education, retail, links]

Audio Engineering Society

The AES serves its members, the industry and the public by stimulating and facilitating advances in the constantly changing field of audio. It encourages and disseminates new developments through annual technical meetings and exhibitions of professional equipment, and through the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, the professional archival publication in the audio industry.

[United States, audio, publications, links]

Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center (CSERIAC)

and Crew Chief ComputerMan :


COMBIMAN: COMputerized BIomechanical MAN-model

[United States, Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center (CSERIAC)]

Crew Chief

[United States, Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center (CSERIAC)]

Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMS)


Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)


Happy Puppy Game Site


Institute for Information Processing and Computer Supported New Media (IICM)

Graz, Austria

VRwave at IICM

[Austria, Institute for Information Processing and Computer Supported New Media (IICM), java, standalone VRML browser]

Institute for Interventional Informatics

[United States, Telepresence, Bio-Car]

Microsoft (VRML 2.0 Viewer download)

[USA, VRML browser, Microsoft VRML 2.0 Viewer]

N64 Third Dimension


Netscape (download Live3D)

[USA, VRML browser, Live3D]

Now Enterprises

[Canada, OpenGL, standalone OS/2 VRML browser, VRML/2]

Sega Online


Takshele Corporation

[United States, 3D visualization, VRML browser, DpIV]

The Natural History Museum

Virtual Museum Project

The Natural History Museum in London, Uk is exploring uses of virtual reality to its museum exhibits. Current exhibits iclude: the 'Virtual Endeavour' Based on a 3D digital replica of Captain Cook's HM Bark Endeavour, and VR Trilobites - VRML models of fossils.

[United Kingdom, The Natural History Museum, VRML]

U.S. Army Research Laboratory Survivability/Lethality Directorate


The ComputerMan Model is a software tool (written in C++) for studying the effects of penetrating injuries to personnel. This model is designed to simulate the wounding process and to predict injury outcomes in terms of performance degradation and survivability.

[United States, U.S. Army Research Laboratory Survivability/Lethality Directorate, simulation software]

Virtual Vegas

[online casino games]

Virtual World Wide Web

The Virtual World Wide Web is a network of over 400 independently owned 3D pages. Pages include exhibitions, educational and training sites, amusement and other entertainments, multi user chat worlds, technology pages, promotional sites, virtual shopping, 3D art galleries and virtual cities. The site was originated by Superscape, Inc.


VRML Review Board (VRB)

The VRML Review Board (VRB) provides technical review and guidance for Working Groups, advising the VRML Consortium on recommended practices and standards.


VR Sports at Interplay


Zarf' s List of Interactive Games on the Web



20/20 Blake

The current (7/97) George Coates performance in which paintings and engravings selected from throughout William Blake's life appear onstage as projected stage sets. The audience wears 3D glasses to experience stereographic illusions created from digital manipulations of the paintings and engraving, enabling live performers to appear in the artworks.

[United States, George Coates, 3D stereographic devices, theatre/performing arts]


Alembic challenges conventional vr representation and interaction paradigms. Displayed at Bonington Gallery, Alembic is an interactive "virtual reality" installation using 3D image display, sound and "field sensing." A sense of immersion is produced by the synthesis of "Dynamic Form" which responds directly to the viewer's movements in an organic and analogue manner.

[United Kingdom, Bonington Gallery, computer generated 3D images]

Angels - VR Movie (1989-1992)

" Nicole Stenger is taking advantage of VR hardware advances to create a virtual reality movie, called Angels. The movie involves the interaction of the viewer, who is equipped with Dataglove and goggles. When an angel is touched, it spins new environments and colors out of the crystals that surround it. In creating the movie, Stenger rendered original settings and eliminated some conventional Dataglove gestures." --see Haggerty, M. (1992). Serious Lunacy: Art in Virtual Worlds. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 12(2), 4.



Apparitions is both a physical installation at the UC SanDiego University Art Gallery and a computer generated virtual environment created by Vital Signs, a collaborative group of artists and programmers.

[United States, UC San Diego University Art Gallery, large-scale video projections, collaborative project, Vital Signs]

Arena Life by Ulrike Gabriel

Each polygon generated in the "Perceptual Arena" is developed as a form of artificial life called "Being". It is generated and developed not only by the participant in his HMD and Data Glove, but also by anyone accessing it through the internet. 'Being' now becomes a matter of being manipulated by a plurality of people, a 'tribe' that create a kind of 'bottom up' circumstance for artificial life --- circumstances within circumstances. "Perceptual Arena" is a realtime virtual environment designed with OTHERSPACE. In the default state completely empty, it creates a visual space texture as a coding of the user interaction. The interaction is simply to be in the space, to perceive it, to move around and to grasp the resulting virtual clay, which defines the space and is the material for the further interaction.

[Austria, Ulrike Gabriel, 3-D culling, Polhemeus FastTrack, HMDs, 3D-tracking, Data Glove, OTHERSPACE]

(Art)^n Laboratory


Virtual Photography/PHSColograms (Art) to the Nth Power, Inc. uses digital 3D and animation hard copy technology products to display digital renderings of art in its installation gallery.

[United States, PHSCologram, digital 3D/animation hard copy]

BREATH by Ulrike Gabriel

In BREATH the participant's breath was projected onto four surrounding screens in the form of changing polygons by means of abstract computer graphics.

[Austria, Ulrike Gabriel, Polhemeus FastTrack, 3D-tracking, VRML, Silicon Graphics Onyx2, 3D-culling, HMDs]

CLOUDS OF: The things that float before your eyes by Robin Petterd

This installation work explores 'how images and people seem to float by, out of reach in so much of life because the experience of them has been mediated by technology'. The work also attempts to address some of the problems of how to show interactive and computer based work in a gallery setting by the addition of more elements to gallery than just a computer screen and making the interactive components of the exhibition as easy to use as possible.

[Australia, Salamanca Arts Centre, Arts Tasmania, interactive art]

Conversation with Angels by Ampcom

Presented at the Ars Electronica Festival 97, Conversation with Angels is a multi-user VRML 2.0 world in which visitors choose an avatar in which to enter the worlds and chat with a variety of robot personalities via a text interface. Ampcom is the artists Andy Best and Merja Puustinen.

[Finland, VRML, avatars, Andy Best, Merja Puustinen, Ars Electronica Festival]

CUI: Cathartic User Interface by Perry Hoberman and Nick Phillips

An interactive, multi-participant installation originally installed in the Blasthaus Gallery in 1995.

[United States, Telepresence Research, performance art, Blasthaus Gallery]

Faraday's Garden by Perry Hoberman

In Faraday's Garden, participants walk through a landscape of household and office appliances which function as a time travel experience, also uses 3D audio technology.

[United States, Portola, computer generated 3D environments]


Stelarc's work explores and extends the concept of the body and its relationship with technology through human/machine interfaces incorporating the Internet and Web, sound, music, video and computers.

[Australia, Stelarc, performance art]

Guggenheim Museum, LCD Display, 1989-1990 by Jenny Holzer

A museum installation by Jenny Holzer.

[United States, Guggenheim Museum, museum installation, LCD images]

Interface Autodrom by Tommy Lehner, Peter Hauenschild, Georg Ritter

AUTODROM is a multimedia experimental array and installation presented at the Ars Electronica Festival 97. AUTODROM involves the collision of two worlds at the intersection of Reality Road and the Cyberspace Expressway - the man-machine interface, a two-way feedback loop interlinking mankind and the virtual world. The human-controlled machines moving along an actual test track have their equivalent in virtual space in the form of 3-D characters. An additional computer-generated factor has been engineered into the behavior of these figures.

[Austria, Ars Electronica, multimedia, multi-channel video]

Lovers Leap by Miroslaw Rogala

An interactive multimedia installation.

[United States, Miroslaw Rogala, proprietary voice-storage technology, multimedia, music, multi-channel video]

MENAGERIE: A Virtual Experience by Scott Fisher:

A fully immersive virtual environment installation that is inhabited by virtual characters and presences specially designed to respond to and interact with its users. This experience allows a visitor to become visually and aurally immersed in a 3D computer generated environment. Produced by Scott Fisher of Telepresence Research in collaboration with Magic Box Productions, Inc.

[United States, Telepresence Research, Magic Box Productions, real-time computer graphics animation, head-coupled sterescopic color viewer, animals, virtual characters]

Ornitorrinco in Eden by Eduardo Kac and Ed Bennett

A networked telepresence installation, the result of a collaboration of Eduardo Kac and Ed Bennett.

[United States, University of Kentucky at Lexington, telerobotics, cooperative installation, collaborative project, Eduardo Kac, Ed Bennet]

Please Change Beliefs by Jenny Holzer

An interactive exhibit in which the participants alter the "truisms" or add their own.

[United States, Jenny Holzer, text-based]

Slippery Traces

The Postcard Trail by George Legrady A non-linear narrative in which the viewer navigates through a maze of about 200 interconnected postcards that cover a range of topics such as nature, geography, colonialism, the future, work, urban environments, technology, race, gender, the supernatural, kitsch, etc. Each postcard contains approximately 5 hotspots or links, each of which when selected by the viewer, leads to a different image. The hotspots links to other images are based on literal, semiotic, psychoanalytic, metaphoric or other connections. As the viewer navigates through the images following their interest and desire, a database algorithm keeps track of each move, weaving a second level story based on the sequence of the viewer's choices. The viewer can choose to see this statistical analysis, or metaphoric trace (situated beneath the postcard image) as it is constantly updated and adjusted according to each sequential move.

[United States, George Legrady, interactive arts]


A Virtual Reality Project This site demonstrates the ways in which virtual reality technology can be used to illuminate an existing dramatic text.

[United States, University of Kansas, HMDs, theatre/performance arts, projected computer graphic system, i.e.VR (The Institute for the Exploration of Virtual Realities at the University of Kansas)]

The Caves of Lascaux

Although the real Caves exist, they are now closed to the public due to concern over deterioration of the thousands of paintings in the Caves. The natural traffic of visitors after the rediscovery of the Caves in 1946 brought harmful bacteria and moisture into the Caves. This exhibit, created by Benjamin Britton, allows visitors to experience the Caves without harming the paintings, as well as educates the public.

[France, Benjamin Britton, VRML, preservation/archival applications, head-mounted displays]

The Clearing by George Legrady

"The Clearing" is an interactive computer artwork that deals with the representation of the Bosnian conflict in the language of the Western news print media. Viewers interact with a moving hunting photograph to scan a range of topics on Bosnia. They can choose any of 30 categories to examine news quotes imbedded in the photograph. Different points of view are identified through color coding: The Bosnian Muslims, the Serbs and outside news commentaries. The viewers' experience of information search through the computer program interface is designed to reveal traces of vision technologies' origins in military and medical applications, a particular kind of seeing that can be described as "search and destroy" or "hold still while I examine."

[United States, George Legrady, interactive computer artwork]

The Topological Slide by Michael Scroggins and Stewart Dickson

A collaboration of Michael Scroggins and Stewart Dickson in which the participant is able to "surf" mathematical topology.

[United States, real-time videographic animation, MUDs]

"Wings" at i.e.VR

An experimental production in which the audience was outfitted with i-glasses.

[United States, University of Kansas, projected computer graphic system, HMDs, theatre/performance arts, i.e.VR at the University of Kansas]

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